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Five cultural periods, ranging from pre-Mauryan to the early Medieval were recognized during this season's excavation.

Period I, belonging to pre-Mauryan to Mauryan times, is distinguished by the occurrence of the Northern Black Polished Ware, black slipped, black-and-red and plain red wares. A few sherds of the Northern Black Polished Ware were found revetted with copper nails. Structural remains consisted of ring-wells, stone drains and bricks with semi-circular holes. Overlying a debris of conflagration were found rooms built of coarse and semi-dressed stones and also mud-walls. Other antiquities consisted of iron objects, punch-marked and cast coins and a few terracotta objects.

Period II, belonging to Sunga times, is characterized by the absence of the Northern Black Polished Ware and black-and-red ware. The other ceramics of the previous Period, however, continued during this Period. Small circular coins, probably of Malava gana-rajya, were also found. The fortifications appeared in this Period. A retaining wall of random-rubble with fifteen courses, having paved floor inside, was also encountered.

Period III, representing Naga-Kushan period, is marked by the presence of typical conical bowls, sprinklers and painted black-on-red, plain red and decorated wares. Associated finds include iron objects, terracotta beads and human and animal figurines, besides a few Naga coins.

Period IV,belonging to the Kshatrapa-Gupta times, is characterized by red and blackand- red wares, Kshatrapa coins of silver and copper, iron objects, beads, ear-ornaments, bangles and stone objects.

Period V representing Medieval period, is marked by a thin deposit with red and coarse grey wares and a few sculptures, including that of a beautiful female torso.

The excavation at the temple site, BSN VII, brought to light a few sherds of the Northern Black Polished Ware overlying the natural soil. Three finely-dressed square stone blocks with mortice holes in the centre, perhaps to carry the pillars of mandapa in front of an unexposed temple were encountered. The associated stone-floor is datable to the period of first century B.c.-first century A.D. By the side of a rubble platform a damaged octagonal pillar sculptured with makara design and assignable to the Sunga period was found reused. Evidence of pre-existing Siva temple, which might have continued till ninth-tenth century A.D., was also noticed.

Lastly in 1976-77 the circle and temples survey project carried excavation with a view:

  • To exposing the fortification-wall and the moat;
  • To completely exposing the temple; and
  • To finding out more details about the chalcolithic habitation in and around the ancient city.

Excavation in BSN VI revealed that the fortification was built of random rubble masonry in criss-cross pattern after the wooden palisades. The fortification with a width of 15 m and extant height of 1-0 m, is assignable to the second century B.C. and was found to be resting on a regular habitation of Period III B, yielding punch-marked coins, Northern Black Polished Ware, iron objects, etc. A ramp, made of brick jelly and abutting the fortification wall was also exposed. A number of stone balls, huge and small, were recovered from the the fortification wall and the moat. The inner edge of the moat was strengthened by stone masnory. Two sculptures, one of Siva-Parvati , the other of miniature standing Vishnu, probably belonging to Period IV B, were recovered from the moat. Besides, a torso and decorated portion of the pillar were also recovered. Two ring-wells and a number of rubble structures to the east of the fortifications were unearthed. A brick wall of seven courses, plastered with lime, running to a length of 3 m, belonging to Period IV B was also exposed. Important discovery from Period IV A is that of an inscribed seal.

Excavation in BSN VII exposed a temple-complex, assignble to Period IV A. The temple-complex consisted of an apsidal shrine, a four-pillared mandapa in front of the shrine on the west and two rooms in the east, enclosed by a rubble wall. The flooring of the complex was made of lateritic clay mixed with potsherds and plastered with lime. The area seems to have been occupied from Period III B. Noteworthy antiquities include a miniature Ganesa, a head of Buddha and a terracotta figure of Kaumari.

Excavation in BSN VIII, which is 400 m from the railway bridge and 4 km from the confluence of the rivers Betwa and Bes, revealed two Periods of occupation, of which Period I is divisible into two Sub-periods, IA and IB.

Period IA, is marked by pre-pottery microlithic level. The microliths, found between the depth of 9.00 to 9.25 m from the surface, are made on chalcedony, quartz, jasper and agate, and are non-geometric in form.

Period IB, represented by a deposit of 40 to 60 cm overlying a sterile layer yielded non-geometric and a few geometric microliths without any retouch. No pottery was found in this deposit.

Period II, separated from the preceding Sub-period by a sterile layer of 50 cm thickness is divisible into three sub-phases which yielded material belonging to chalcolithic culture, such microliths, painted black-on-red, white painted black-and-red, fine grey and red wares, post-holes forming circular or rectangular house plans. A few sherds show incised designs and graffiti marks. Painted motifs are represented by horizontal or vertical bands, triangles, cheques, dots, horned antelopes, bulls, etc. Pale brown ware comparable to the neolithic wares of the Deccan is represented by sherds with mat impression on the exterior and burnished surfaces. Some of the grey ware bear paintings in brown pigment.